Concept and Definitions

Enterprise: The enterprise is an organizational form that produces goods and services using decision autonomy at first degree. An enterprise carries out one or more activities at one or more locations. The relation between enterprise and legal unit is directly stated by this definition:”An enterprise corresponds to a legal unit or combination of legal units.

Computer: The desktop computer, laptop, tablet, smartphone should be evaluated as a computer in this research.Cash registers,POS device and computer-controlled machines should not be considered a computers.

ICT specialists : ICT specialists are employees for whom ICT is the main job. For example, to

develop, operate or maintain ICT systems or applications.

Dsl: Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a family of technologies that provides digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. DSL is widely understood to mean Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), the most commonly installed technical varieties of DSL. DSL service is delivered simultaneously with regular telephone on the same telephone line as it uses a higher frequency band that is separated by filtering.

Web: Location on the World Wide Web identified by a Web address. Collection of Web files on a particular subject that includes a beginning file called a home page. Information is encoded with specific languages (Hypertext mark-up language (HTML), XML, Java) readable with a Web browser, like Netscape's Navigator or Microsoft's internet Explorer.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP): Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) consists of one or of a set of software applications that integrate information and processes across the several business functions of the enterprise. Typically ERP integrates planning, procurement, sales, marketing, customer relationship, finance and human resources.

ERP software can be customised or package software. These latter are singlevendor, enterprise wide, software packages, but they are built in a modular way allowing enterprises to customise the system to their specific activity implementing only some of those modules.

ERP systems typically have the following characteristics:

1. are designed for client server environment (traditional or web-based);

2. integrate the majority of a business’s processes;

3. process a large majority of an organization’s transactions;

4. use enterprise-wide database that stores each piece of data only once;

5. allow access to the data in real time.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) : Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a management methodology which places the customer at the centre of the business activity, based in an intensive use of information technologies to collect, integrate, process and analyse information related to the customers. One can distinguish between:

1. Operational CRM – Integration of the front office business processes that are in contact with the customer.

2. Analytical CRM – Analysis, through data mining, of the information available in the enterprise on its customers. This aims to gather in depth knowledge of the customer and how to answer to its needs.

Supply Chain Management (SCM): SCM is the management of a network of all business processes and activities involving procurement of raw materials, manufacturing and distribution management of Finished Goods. SCM is also called the art of management of providing the Right Product, At the Right Time, Right Place and at the Right Cost to the Customer.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) :Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) refers to the structured transmission of data or documents between organizations or enterprises by electronic means.

e-Commerce: An e-Commerce transaction is the sale or purchase of goods or services, conducted over computer networks by methods specifically designed for the purpose of receiving or placing of orders. The goods or services are ordered by those methods, but the payment and the ultimate delivery of the goods or services do not have to be conducted online. An e-Commerce transaction can

be between enterprises, households, individuals, governments, and other public or private organisations. E-Commerce comprises orders made in Web pages or “apps”, extranet or EDI and excludes orders made by telephone calls, facsimile, or manually typed e-mail. The type is defined by the method of making the order.

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