Share of Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) in GDP was 9,2‰
According to the survey results in public sector, foundation universities and business enterprise sector and calculations based on higher education sector registers for state universities, Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) increased in Turkey in 2012 compared to the previous year by 17,1% and reached to 13 062 Million TL.
In Turkey, share of GERD in GDP was 9,2 per thousand in 2012. It was 8,6 per thousand in 2011.R&D expenditure of business enterprises sector has the biggest share in total R&D with 45,1%
In 2012, 45,1 per cent of R&D expenditure was performed by business enterprises sector, 43,9 per cent by higher education and 11 per cent by government. These figures were 45,5 per cent by higher education sector, 43,2 per cent by business enterprises sector and 11,3 per cent by government sector in 2011. Business enterprises sector located in the first rank among R&D financiers with 46,8%
Analyzing the sectors financing R&D expenditure, 46,8 per cent financed by business enterprises, 28,2 per cent by government sector, 21,1 per cent by higher education sector, 3,4 per cent by other national sources and 0,6 per cent by foreign funds in 2012.Full Time Equivalent (FTE) R&D personnel increased by 13,3%
Total number of FTE R&D personnel was 105 122 in 2012. Annual increase in FTE R&D personnel was 13,3% compared to the previous year. Regarding FTE R&D personnel distribution by sectors, 49,7 per cent was employed in business enterprise sector, 38,8 per cent was employed in higher education sector and 11,5 per cent was employed in government sector in 2012.
Total number of FTE R&D personnel per ten thousand employed person was 42,4 in 2012.Highest R&D in TR5 West Anatolia
According to Classification of Statistical Regions (SR) Level-1, R&D expenditure in 2012 was the highest in TR5 West Anatolia with 28,5 per cent. This region was followed by TR4 East Marmara with 20,6 per cent and TR1 Istanbul with 20 per cent.
According to R&D personnel, TR5 West Anatolia with 22,8 per cent was in the first place. This region was followed by TR1 Istanbul with 21,8 per cent and TR4 East Marmara with 15,4 per cent. Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D, 2012Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D by
by Sectors, 2012 Type of Cost, 2012Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D as a Percentage of GDP and R&D Personnel (FTE) per ten Thousand Employed Person, 2007-2012
(*) The figure of R&D Personnel (FTE) per ten thousand employed person was recalculated according to the new population projections in 2007.