Share of Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) in GDP was 0.95%
According to the survey results in public sector, foundation universities and business enterprise sector and calculations based on higher education sector registers for state universities, Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) increased in Turkey in 2013 compared to the previous year by 13.4% and reached to 14 billion 807 million TL.
In Turkey, share of GERD in GDP was 0.95% in 2013. It was 0.92% in 2012.Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP
(*) According to revised GDP based on 1998Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D, 2013
Share of business enterprises sector in total R&D expenditure increased
Share of business enterprises sector in total R&D expenditure increased by 47.5%. This sector was followed by higher education sector by 42.1% and public sector by 10.4% respectively. The first rank was occupied by business enterprise sector by 45.1% in previous year while higher education was 43.9% and public sector was 11%.
Business enterprises sector was in the first rank among R&D financiers by 48.9%
R&D expenditure was financed by business enterprises by 48.9% in 2013. This financier was followed by government sector by 26.6%, higher education sector by 20.4%, other national sources by 3.3% and foreign funds by 0.8% respectively.Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D by Type of
by Sectors, 2013 Cost, 2013
Full Time Equivalent (FTE) R&D personnel increased by 7.5%
Total number of FTE R&D personnel was 112 969 in 2013. Annual increase in FTE R&D personnel was 7.5% compared to the previous year. Regarding FTE R&D personnel distribution by sectors, 51.7% was employed in business enterprise sector, 37.7% was employed in higher education sector and 10.6% was employed in government sector in 2013.The ratio of female R&D personnel was 30.3%
Total number of FTE female R&D personnel was 34 246 in 2013 which constitutes 30.3% of total R&D personnel. The ratio of female R&D personnel in business sector was 23.1%. This sector was followed by public sector by 25.2% and higher education by 41.7%.Highest R&D personnel was in (TR1) Istanbul
According to Classification of Statistical Regions (SR) Level-1, R&D expenditure in 2013 was the highest in (TR5) West Anatolia with 27.5% which consists of Ankara, Konya and Karaman. This region was followed by (TR4) East Marmara by 21.3% and (TR1) Istanbul by 20.3%.
According to R&D personnel, (TR1) Istanbul by 22.7% was in the first place. This region was followed by West Anatolia (TR5) Istanbul with 22.2% and (TR4) East Marmara by 15.5%.