Share of gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) in GDP was 1.01%
According to the survey results in public sector, foundation universities and business enterprise sector and calculations based on higher education sector registers for state universities, gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) increased in Turkey in 2014 compared to the previous year by 18.8% and reached to 17 billion 598 million TL.
In Turkey, share of GERD in GDP was 1.01% in 2014. It was 0.95% in 2013.Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D, 2014
Half of the total R&D expenditure was made by business enterprises sector
Share of business enterprises sector in total R&D expenditure increased by 49.8%. This sector was followed by higher education sector by 40.5% and public sector by 9.7% respectively. The first rank was occupied by business enterprise sector by 47.5% in previous year while higher education was 42.1% and public sector was 10.4%.Gross domestic expenditure on R&D Gross domestic expenditure on R&D by type of
by sectors, 2014 cost, 2014 Business enterprises sector was in the first rank among R&D financiers by 50.9%
R&D expenditure was financed by business enterprises by 50.9% in 2014. This financier was followed by government sector by 26.3%, higher education sector by 18.4%, other national sources by 3.4% and foreign funds by 1.1% respectively.Full Time Equivalent (FTE) R&D personnel increased by 2.2%
Total number of FTE R&D personnel was 115 444 in 2014. Annual increase in FTE R&D personnel was 2.2% compared to the previous year. Regarding FTE R&D personnel distribution by sectors, 53.7% was employed in business enterprise sector, 35.7% was employed in higher education sector and 10.6% was employed in government sector in 2014.The ratio of female R&D personnel was 30.2%
Total number of FTE female R&D personnel was 34 826 in 2014 which constitutes 30.2% of total R&D personnel. The ratio of female R&D personnel in business sector was 23.2%. This sector was followed by public sector by 25.7% and higher education by 42%.Highest R&D personnel was in (TR1) Istanbul
According to Classification of Statistical Regions (SR) Level-1, R&D expenditure in 2014 was the highest in (TR5) West Anatolia with 26.4% which consists of Ankara, Konya and Karaman. This region was followed by (TR4) East Marmara by 22.7% and (TR1) Istanbul by 21.6%.
According to R&D personnel, (TR1) Istanbul by 23.6% was in the first place. This region was followed by West Anatolia (TR5) Istanbul with 21.8% and (TR4) East Marmara by 14.3%.