Share of gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) in GDP was 1.06%
According to the survey results in public sector, foundation universities and business enterprise sector and calculations based on higher education sector registers for state universities, gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) increased in Turkey in 2015 compared to the previous year by 17.1% and reached to 20 Billion 615 Million TL.
In Turkey, share of GERD in GDP was 1.06% in 2015. It was 1.01% in 2014.
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP, 2003-2015
(*) According to revised GDP based on 1998
Half of the total R&D expenditure was made by business enterprises sector
Share of business enterprises sector in total R&D expenditure increased by 50%. This sector was followed by higher education sector by 39.7% and public sector by 10.3% respectively.
Business enterprises sector was in the first rank among R&D financiers by 50.1%
R&D expenditure was financed by business enterprises by 50.1% in 2015. This financier was followed by government sector by 27.6%, higher education sector by 18.1%, other national sources by 3.2% and foreign funds by 1.1% respectively.
Full Time Equivalent (FTE) R&D personnel increased by 5.9%
Total number of FTE R&D personnel was 122 288 in 2015. Annual increase in FTE R&D personnel was 5.9% compared to the previous year. Regarding FTE R&D personnel distribution by sectors, 54.5% was employed in business enterprise sector, 35.4% was employed in higher education sector and 10.1% was employed in government sector in 2015.
The ratio of female R&D personnel was 30.7%
Total number of FTE female R&D personnel was 37 510 in 2015 which constitutes 30.7% of total R&D personnel. The ratio of female R&D personnel in business sector was 24%. This sector was followed by public sector by 25.8% and higher education by 42.3%.
Highest R&D personnel was in (TR1) Istanbul
According to Classification of Statistical Regions (SR) Level-1, R&D expenditure in 2015 was the highest in (TR5) West Anatolia with 28% which consists of Ankara, Konya and Karaman. This region was followed by (TR1) Istanbul by 21.6% and (TR4) East Marmara by 21%.
According to R&D personnel, (TR1) Istanbul by 24.1% was in the first place. This region was followed by West Anatolia (TR5) with 21.4% and (TR4) East Marmara by 14.2%.