Foreign trade statistics, which are produced by Turkish Statistical Institute have been published according to the general trade system in detail since January 2020. In this context, external trade statistics by enterprise characteristics have been prepared according to the general trade system. Detailed explanation on the subject is included in the release attachment.The proportion of large enterprises was 43.7% in exports, 62.3% in imports
External trade statistics were combined with business registers by activity sector and number of employees and external trade statistics by enterprise characteristics were obtained. The matching rate indicates trade operators recorded in trade registers can be successfully linked with enterprises in business registers. There were 84 thousand 332 enterprises in exports, 71 thousand 88 in imports.The matching rates were 99.9% for exporter enterprises and approximately 100% as value for exports and 97% for importer enterprises and approximately 100% as value for imports.
In 2019, 19.2% of total exports were made by micro enterprises with 1-9 employees which were 60.8% of exporter enterprises. In export, the share of small enterprises (10-49 employees) was 18.9%, medium-sized enterprises (50-249 employees) was 18.2% and the share of large enterprises (250+ employees) was 43.7%. Share of exports by employment size class,2019 Share of imports by employment size class,2019
The rate of micro enterprises (1-9 employees) was 10.2%, small enterprises (10-49 employees) was 11.9%, medium-sized enterprises (50-249 employees) was 15.6% and large enterprises (250+ employees) was 62.3% in total imports while large enterprises was 4.0% of importer enterprises.Industry sector was forefront in external trade
In 2019, 56.8% of exports and 53.4% of imports were performed by enterprises which took place in industry sector. Enterprises, whose main activity is trade, performed 39.7% of exports and 32.5% of imports.
Large enterprises performed 68.9% of industry sector's exports. Small and medium enterprises performed 91.4% of trade sector's exports. For imports, large enterprises took the first place in industry sector with the rate of 80.5%. In the other sectors' import, the share of small and medium enterprises increased from 29.7% to 29.8%, while large enterprises took the first place with the rate of 70.1%.Exports of enterprises in industry sector to the European Union (EU 27) was 48.7%
Enterprises in industry sector exported mostly to the EU27 with the rate of 48.7%, Near and Middle Eastern 14.7% and Other European Countries 11.9% in 2019. 65.2% of exports to the EU27 performed by industry sector and 33.0% of exports to the EU27 performed by trade sector.
Enterprises in industrial activities, imported from the EU27 with the rate of 35.5%, from Other Asian Countries with the rate of 21.1% and from Other European Countries with the rate of 17.5%. The top partner zone for trader enterprises imports was the EU27 by 32.7%. The EU was followed by Other Asian with the rate of 29.6% and Other European Countries with the rate of 13.5%.Enterprises in industry sector exported 58.2% of manufactured products
Enterprises in industry sector performed 58.2% of manufactured products exports and trade enterprises performed 38.7% of it. Industrial enterprises exported manufactured products as a rate of 96.5% and 1.9% agriculture, forestry and fishing products.
Industrial enterprises performed 50.6% of manufactured products imports and trade enterprises performed 38.8% of it and enterprises in other sectors performed 10.6% of it. Industrial enterprises imported manufactured products as a rate of 72.8% and 4.7% agriculture, forestry and fishing products and 4.0% mining products.The rate of top 100 enterprises in exports was 43.1%
Top 100 enterprises performed 43.1% of exports and 57.5% of imports in 2019. Top 5 enterprises performed 15.7% of exports and 23.4% of imports.
Top 5 enterprises whose main activity was industry had a share of 17.8% in industry sector and enterprises whose main activity was trade had a share of 12.7% in exports. In imports top 5 enterprises whose main activity was industry had a share of 21.1% in industry and enterprises whose main activity was trade 13.0% in trade.Share of trade by top enterprises, 2019The proportion of enterprises imported from 1 partner country was 50.5%
While 44.2% of enterprises exported to 1 partner country, 16.5% of enterprises exported to 2 partner countries. 4.5% of enterprises exported to 20 or more partner countries and performed 60.2% of the exports.
In 2019, 50.5% of total enterprises imported from 1 partner country, 15.8% of enterprises imported from 2 partner countries. The proportion of enterprises which imported from 20 or more partner countries was 2.3% and these enterprises had a share of 51.8% in total imports. Share of trade by number of countries by enterprises, 2019
Share of trade by number of countries,2019
The next release on this subject will be on September, 2021