With information about consumption expenditures obtained from Household Budget Survey it is aimed to; to determine the items to be included in consumer price indices and the base year weights; to monitor the changes of households’ consumption patterns within the time; to compile the data which will help in forecasting private final consumption expenditures used in the national income calculation; to obtain required data for the determination of poverty line and other socio-economic analysis; to obtain necessary information to enable the minimum wage to be determined according to recent conditions.
· History: The early surveys covering whole Turkey were carried out in 1987 and 1994. Turkish Statistical Institution (TurkStat) has launched annual regular surveys since 2002. 2002 Household Budget Survey was conducted on a total of monthly 800 and annually 9 600 sample households. 2003 Household Budget Survey was conducted on a total of monthly 2160 and annually 25 920 sample households for a year period between 1 January and 31 December 2003. 2004-2008 Household Budget Surveys were conducted on a total of monthly 720 and annually 8 640 sample households. The sample size was increased to 1104 households monthly, 13248 households yearly since 2009 because of using non-response correction method instead of substitution of sample households.
· Household: Group of people composed of one or more than one members living in the same dwelling either with blood relations or not and meeting their own basic needs together and participating the services and management of the household.
· Member of household: Each member of the community forming the household. However those who are doing military service or in jail, old people in aged homes, university students in the dormitories, guests and those who leave he house permanently due to marriage, military or employment conditions are not included as the members of the households.
· Consumption expenditure: It is the average of monthly consumption expenditures of households and consisting of the following components;
Purchase: Acquiring any good or service in return of a definite payment. The purchases done by households for their own needs in the survey month have been included.
Consumption from own production: Consuming the goods (in the produced or processed form) obtained from household’s own production by the household itself For instance, the consumption of milk produced by the household either as milk or cheese.
Consumption from income in-kind: Households’ consumption of the goods and services produced or sold in the work place of the household members who are currently working is accepted as consumption from income in-kind. For instance, the allowances of food, clothing etc. provided for a member who is a paid employee is accepted as the consumption from the in-kind income of the employee, whereas if the household member working at his own place or as employer brings some of the products that he/she produces or sells at his work place to home for consumption purposes, this is accepted as consumption from income in kind.
Goods and services that are purchased by the household to be given to the private persons or bodies as gifts or allowances: It covers the value of goods and services that are purchased by the members of the household to be given (as gift or allowance) to the private persons or bodies during the survey month.
Imputed rent: The rent amount of the dwelling in which the household lives as the land owner, or public housing and other (those who live in the dwellings of their father, relative etc. and pay a very low amount of rent or live rent-free). The imputed rent is included in the consumption expenditure. The imputed rent amount is determined by taking the rent amount of a dwelling which has similar features and is rented in the same district or settlement, as precedent.
Unrecorded expenditures: Expenditures of household members related to their economic activity and non-consumption expenditures and investments are not covered.
The sub-groups of COICOP/HBS are listed below:
1. Food and non-alcoholic beverages
111. Bread and cereals
114. Milk, cheese and eggs
115. Fat and oils
118. Sugar, jam, honey, chocolate and confectionery
119. Food products n.e.c.
12. Non-alcoholic beverages
121. Coffee, tea and cocoa
122. Mineral waters, soft drinks, fruit and vegetable juices
2. Alcoholic beverages, cigaratte and tobacco
22.Cigarette and tobacco
221. Cigarette and tobacco
3. Clothing and footwear
311. Clothing materials
313. Other articles of clothing and clothing accessories
314. Cleaning, repair and hire of clothing
321. Shoes and other footwear
322. Repair and hire of footwear
4. Housing and rent
411. Actual rentals paid by tenants
412. Other actual rentals
421. Imputed rentals of owner occupiers
422. Other imputed rentals
43.Maintenance and repair of the dwelling
431. Materials for the maintenance and repair of the dwelling
432. Services for the maintenance and repair of the dwelling
44.Water supply and miscellaneous services related to dwelling
441. Water supply
442. Refuse collection
443. Sewerage collection
444. Other services relating to the dwelling n.e.c
45.Electricity, gas and other fuels
453. Liquid fuels
454. Solid fuels
455. Heat energy
5. Furniture, houses appliances and home care services
51.Furniture and furnishings, carpets and other floor coverings
511. Furniture and furnishing
512. Carpets and other floor coverings
513. Repair of furniture, furnishing and floor coverings
521. Households textiles
53.Household appliances and repair of them
531. Major household appliances whether electric or not
532. Small electric household appliances
533. Repair of household appliances
54.Glassware, tableware and household utensils
541. Glassware, tableware and household utensils
55.Tools and equipments for house and garden
551. Major tools and equipment
552. Small tools and miscellaneous accessories
56.Goods and services for routine household maintenance
561. Non-durable household goods
562. Domestic services and household services
61.Medical products, appliances and equipment
611. Pharmaceutical products
612. Other medical products
613. Therapeutic appliances and equipments
621. Medical services
622. Dental services
623. Other paramedical services
631. Hospital services
71.Purchase of vehicles
711. Motor cars
712. Motor cycles
714. Animal drawn vehicles
72.Operation of personal transport equipment
721. Spare parts and accessories for personal transport equipment
722. Fuels and lubricant for personal transport equipment
723. Maintenance and repair of personal transport equipment
724. Other services in respect of personal transport equipment
731. Passenger transport by railway
732. Passenger transport by road
733. Passenger transport by air
734. Passenger transport by sea and inland waterway
735. Combined passenger transport
736. Other purchased transport services
811. Postal services
82.Telephone and telefax equipment
821. Telephone and telefax equipment and repair
83.Telephone and telefax services
831. Telephone and telefax services
9. Entertainment and culture
91.Audiovisual, photographic and information processing equipment
911. Equipment for the reception, recording and reproduction of sound and pictures
912. Photographic and cinematographic equipment and optical instruments
913. Information processing equipment
914. Recording media
915. Repair of audio-visual, photographic and information processing equipment
92.Other major durables for recreation and culture and repair of them
921. Major durables for outdoor recreation
922. Musical instruments and major durables for indoor recreation
923. Maintenance and repair of other major durables for recreation and culture
93.Other recreational items and equipment, gardens and pets
931. Games, toys and hobbies
932. Equipment for sport, camping and open-air recreation
933. Gardens, plants and flowers
934. Pets and related products
935. Veterinary and other services for pets
94.Recreational and cultural services
941. Recreational and sporting services
942. Cultural services
943. Games of chance
95.Newspapers and periodicals
952. Newspapers and periodicals
953. Miscellaneous printed matter
954. Stationery and drawing materials
96. Package holidays
961. Package holidays
10. Educational services
101.Pre-primary and primary education
1011. Pre-primary and primary education
1021. Secondary education
103.Post-secondary and non-tertiary education
1031. Post-secondary non-tertiary education
1041. Tertiary education
105.Education not definable by level
1051. Education not definable by level
11. Restaurant and hotels
1111. Catering services
1121. Accommodation services
12. Various good and services
1211. Hairdressing salons and personal grooming establishments
1212. Electric appliances for personal care
1213. Other appliances, articles and products for personal care
123.Personal effects n.e.c.
1231. Jewellery, clocks and watches
1232. Other personal effects
1241. Social protection
1252. Insurance connected with the dwelling
1253. Insurance connected with health
1254. Insurance connected with transport
126.Financial services n.e.c.
1262. Other financial services n.e.c
127.Other services n.e.c.
1271. Other services n.e.c.
Coverage: All members of the households living within the borders of the Republic of Turkey were included within the scope. However institutionalized population and the immigrant population (because of practical reasons) were excluded.
Geographical coverage: All of the settlements within the borders of the Republic of Turkey were included within the scope. Settlements were grouped as follows;
i) Urban Areas: Settlements with a population of 20 001 and above,
ii) Rural Areas: Settlements with a population of 20 000 and below.
Coverage of consumption expenditures and income: Consumption expenditures cover the purchases in the survey month, consumption of own production, consumption from in-kind income and transfers, purchases by the household to be given as a present/support and monthly average value of expenditures made in the last year on some durable goods and infrequent expenditures like car, white goods, computer, television, camera, furniture, whitewash, private school or courses, etc. Income covers the data on the all kinds of disposable income obtained during the last 12 months by household’s members.
· Main variables: Three groups of variables have been obtained from the survey:
1.Variables of socio-economic status of the households: Type of dwelling, status of property, heating system, dwelling facilities, premises and vehicles owned etc.
2.Variables of consumption expenditures: Type of expenditure and value of total monthly expenditure by sub-groups of expenditure.
3.Variables of household composition, employment and income status: Variables related to individuals’ age group, gender, educational background, employment status (occupation, economic activity, status at work etc.), business and non-business net incomes in the survey month and during last year.
· Sampling method: Stratified two-stage cluster sampling method is used.
· Sampling unit: Household live at the address is defined as the final sampling unit.
· Selection of sample unit: Blocks were selected by the probability proportional to size sampling (pps) from the blocks formed from National Address Database. The final sample units, households, are selected from each selected block systematically.
· Weighting: Weighing is a method used to obtain parameters from the data set resulting from sampling so as to represent the universe. Results of the household budget survey have been weighted and published by the most recent population projections. Until year 2009 aforesaid population projections was calculated based on the general population censuses. In 2007 Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) was established. There are some differences in the distribution of population by age, sex and regions in ABPRS compared to the censuses. Accordingly the new population projections were produced using the most recent population data obtained from this new system. National and regional population projections were renewed. The weights based on new population projections have been used beginning from 2007 Household Budget Survey. And the population weights were calculated considering non-responses since 2009 Household Budget Survey.
Prior to the survey month, the information about the socio-economic status of the households is obtained in the first visit to the sample households and how to fill the book of record is explained. During the visits in the survey month, consumption expenditures of the sample household on food, clothing, health, transportation, communication, education, culture, entertainment, housing, furniture etc. are obtained through the books of record and interviewing method. Information about employment status, economic activities, occupation, status at work and household members' net income received during the last 12 months has been compiled in the last interview at the end of the survey month.
· Processing system: The survey has been implemented by using CAPI system at the first and the last interviews, diary keeping and data entry methods have been used at the other interviews.
· Processing site: SAS has been used in analyzing & controlling of data.
Quintiles ordered by disposable household income: Total disposable household incomes received in the last year by all of the households interviewed have been inflated and drawn to the end of the year in order to make the income include a different reference period for each month and make all the incomes comparable. Afterwards, the annual disposable incomes of the households are listed from the least amount to the most and quintiles were formed by dividing the number of the households in 5 equal parts. Thus the share of each group in the expenditures has been calculated.
Quintiles ordered by household consumption expenditure: Monthly consumption expenditure values of the households are listed from the least amount to the most within a month and quintiles are formed by dividing the households in 5 equal parts. Thus the share of each group in the expenditures has been calculated.
Since the quintiles are formed separately for urban and rural settlements and each level of settlements is listed independently, values for Turkey cannot be obtained from the total of the urban and rural values. The household quintiles are formed and sub-features of these groups are calculated separately.
Household Budget Survey data has been provided for users via press releases, micro data CD-ROMs and dynamic data base on internet.