Purpose: It is aimed to follow the development in quarterly and yearly basis, to have data consistent with the European Union regulations, to ensure the possibility of international comparisons and to form a resource for various researches for the turnover, employment, hours worked, gross wages and salaries indicators of the enterprises in the Trade and Services sectors which constitute an important part in economic structure of our country.
Coverage: The unit of the survey is Enterprise. If the establishment has more than one branches or local units, the questionnaire is applied to the center of the enterprise which the accountancy records exist.
Classifications: The indices are calculated according to the NACE Rev. 2 economic activity classification. The activities covered are as follows.
45 - Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles46 - Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles47 - Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles49 - Land transport and transport via pipelines50 - Water transport51 - Air transport52 - Warehousing and support activities for transportation53 - Postal and courier activities55 - Accommodation56 - Food and beverage service activities58 - Publishing activities59 - Motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities60 - Programming and broadcasting activities61 - Telecommunications62 - Computer programming, consultancy and related activities63 - Information service activities69+702 - Legal, accounting and management consultancy activities71 - Architectural and engineering activities; technical testing and analysis73 - Advertising and market research74 - Other professional, scientific and technical activities78 - Employment activities79 - Travel agency, tour operator reservation service and related activities80 - Security and investigation activities812 - Cleaning activities82 - Office administrative, office support and other business support activities
Geographical coverage: Turkey
Economic activity coverage: Indices are calculated according to the NACE Rev. 2 classification. The 44 activity groups covered according to the European Union Short Term Statistics regulations are as follows.
G45_X_G452 = 451+453+454G452 = 452G461 = 461G462 = 462G463 = 463G464 = 464G465 = 465G466 = 466G467 = 467G469 = 469G4711 = 4711G4719 = 4719G472 = 472G473 = 473G47_NF_CLTH = 4751+4771+4772G47_NF_OTH1 = 4741+4742+4753+4761+4762+4764+4765+4776+4777+4778G47_NF_HLTH = 4773+4774+4775G4779 = 4779G478 = 478G4791 = 4791G4799 = 4799H49 = 49H50 = 50H51 = 51H52 = 52H53 = 53I55 = 55I56 = 56J58 = 58J59 = 59J60 = 60J61 = 61J62 = 62J63 = 63M69_M702 = 69+702M71 = 71M73 = 73M74 = 74N78 = 78N79 = 79N80 = 80N812 = 812N82 = 82
A- Reference period and periodicity: The reference period for the first quarter is 1 January – 31 March, for the second quarter 1 April – 30 June, for the third quarter 1 July – 30 September and for the fourth quarter 1 October – 31 December.
B- Nature of the indicators: Turnover, employment, hours worked, gross wages – salaries indices are produced for Trade and Services sectors. The variables used for the calculation of these indicators are as follows:
Turnover (VAT excluded): Turnover comprises the total value of goods and services invoiced by enterprise in reference month and this corresponds to market sales of goods and services supplied to third parties. Turnover includes invoiced by unit vis-a-vis its customer (exception of VAT and deductible taxes linked to turnover) other all taxes and duties. Turnover also includes all other charges (transport, packaging, etc.) passed on to the customer, even if these charges are listed separately in the invoice.
Turnover does not include price decline, discount and allowance, recycling package. The income which is classified in the company’s account as other business income, financial income and extraordinary income are excluded in turnover. Business subventions obtained from the government are also excluded.
VAT obtained from sales: The amount of the value added tax that the enterprise obtained from the sales.
2 - EmploymentNumber of employees: The number of employees, exclusive of number of unpaid working proprietors (owners) and unpaid family workers is defined as those persons who work for an employer and who have a contract of employment and receive compensation in the form of wages, salaries, commission, piecework pay or renumaration in kind. Employees cover all persons who work for the company and paid in return for his work irrespective of their nationality or the length of their working time.
Number of unpaid working proprietors (owners) and unpaid family workers: Unpaid working proprietors; refers to unpaid working proprietors who spend most of their time by working in an establishment. If those persons receive compensation except dividend payments for their work, they must be covered in the number of paid employees part of the questionnaire. Unpaid family workers refers to persons who live with the proprietor of the unit and work regularly for the unit, but do not receive a fixed payment for the work they perform and do not have a contract of service. It excludes family workers work regularly for another unit.
3 – Hours Worked
Total number of hours worked – if calculated: represents the aggregate number of hours actually worked for the output of the establishment during the reference period.
- Hours actually worked during normal working hours
- Time which is spent at the place of work on tasks such as preparation, cleaning of machines and equipment, maintenance, reporting
- Hours paid according to the contract but not worked due to mechanic problems, accidents, professional insufficiency
- Time corresponding to short periods of rest at the work place.
- Hours paid but not actually worked such as for annual leave, holidays and sick leave, strike, lockout
- Meal breaks
- commuting between home and work.
Total working days: Number of days worked in the corresponding month.
Daily average work hour: The average duration of the work for one day.
The hours worked by unpaid working proprietors (owners) and unpaid family workers is estimated at enterprise and activity level and included in the hours worked index calculation.
4- Gross Wages – Salaries
Total of gross payments paid regularly every month to employees: Total gross payments on payroll to employees paid every month are the remuneration payable before deducting the income tax, including social security and retirement payments of workers.
Total of gross payments paid irregularly not every month to employees: Payments which is made to employee, not paid regularly every month with gross bonus/premium and indemnity, social and in kind contribution etc payments, due to work, property of the work place and qualifications of worker, not paid every month certain months of year payments are including. Besides periodically certain months of year paid bonuses and premiums with every social contribution in cash to employee not paid every month are also included.
C- Calculation Method
1- Index formula: The fixed 2010 base year weighted Laspeyres formula is used in calculation of the indices.
2- Source of weights: Results of 2010 Annual Industry and Services Statistics results are used.
3- Outlier analyses: In calculation of the indices, outlier analysis is performed with box-plot method for the sample part. Outlier data, even accuracy is ensured, indicate a dissimilar change from their sector. Consequently, it is assumed that these enterprises only represent themselves in the population.
4- Imputation: The variables of the enterprises whose data cannot be obtained due to several reasons are imputed. The data of these enterprises are estimated according to the monthly rate of change of the sector and the size group of them.
Data sources: Turkish Statistical Institute, “Quarterly Trade and Services Survey” and “Monthly Retail Trade Survey”
Method of weighting: Weights are obtained from the turnover, employment, hours worked and gross wages-salaries data of the enterprises classified in trade and services sectors covered by Annual Industry and Services Statistics.
Sampling and full enumeration: The all enterprises with number employees of 50 or more were taken into account. The enterprises with employees 0-4 and 5-49 were selected by sampling.
Aggregation: Indices are aggregated for G - Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles, H - Transportation and storage, I - Accommodation and food service activities, J - Information and communication, M - Professional, scientific and technical activities, N - Administrative and support service activities of NACE Rev.2 classification and for Trade and Services in general.
Processing system and field application: The field application of the Trade and Services survey of Short Term Statistics is carried out by the Regional Offices of TurkStat. The data are collected quarterly.
The data entry of the questionnaires is performed by the enterprises via web based computer software. The software for the data entry is designed to check the consistency at several points and not to allow entering wrong or missing data.
Non-response process: The respondents are called by phone and visited by a staff from the regional offices. If the enterprise rejects to respond, they are warned about the penalty. Even then they insist on rejecting, the legal procedures are applied.
Schedule of production observations:
The survey was commenced on April 2006. The survey is conducted according to the following schedule.
1st Quarter: (January-February-March) field application April-May
2nd Quarter: (April-May-June) field application July-August
3rd Quarter: (July-August-September) field application October-November
4th Quarter: (October-November-December) field application January-February
Information form on revision will be carried out in 2016 for the statistics produced in this scope of this press release can be accessed from the link below.