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Innovation Survey - Period : 2018
36% of enterprises were innovation active
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Statistical Tables and Dynamic Search
Analytical Framework, Concepts, Definitions, and Classifications
Innovation statistics have been compiled about not only for innovative activities of enterprise’s but also for strategies and sources of information used for these activities, co-operation, costs, factors hampering the implementation of innovation activities and so on issues by using Community Innovation Survey questionnaire which is based on the Oslo Manual in accordance with OECD methodology and compiled for biennial for three year observation periods.
The results of this survey will provide a better understanding of innovation and its relationship with economic growth. In addition, decision-makers are informed about science policy, industrial policy and the factors that influence the innovation capacity of enterprises in the formulation of general economic policies, also have the opportunity to make international comparisons on similar issues.
The survey has undergone various changes over the years with the effect of the modules; no major radical changes have been observed until CIS-2018. In this study, significant changes have been made in the definitions and design of the questionnaire with the effect of the 4th edition of the Oslo Manual (OM4). As a result of these changes, there were breaks in time series.
Under the change of the Oslo Manual and therefore the questionnaire, it is now more important for the decision-makers to see how an enterprise can be an innovative rather than whether it is an innovator or not. The main objective is to identify the profiles in the field of innovation.
One of the most basic definitions used in the research, the definition of innovation concept has been added to the enterprises engaged in innovation activities (marketing) and organizational innovation activities. It is noteworthy that the design concept, which was previously under marketing innovation, is put under product innovation. In addition to this, one of the most radical changes is that process innovation is transformed into business process innovation and the questions increase from 3 to 7 questions. Business process innovations relate to basic business functions as mentioned in OM4.
Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE), Revision
For CIS (1995-1997) NACE Rev.1.1,
For CIS (1998-2000) NACE Rev.1.1,
For CIS (2002-2004) NACE Rev.1.1,
For CIS (2004-2006) NACE Rev.1.1,
For CIS (2006-2008) NACE Rev.1.1,
For CIS (2008-2010) - ....NACE Rev.2
International Standard Classification of Education
ISCED 2011 is used for the higher education graduates for all enterprises.
International and regional guidelines:
There are no important differences between Turkey's methodology reported in the IMF SDDS and relevant international or regional standards.
The enterprise is an organisational form that produces goods and services using decision autonomy at first degree. An enterprise carries out one or more activities at one or more locations. The relation between enterprise and legal unit is directly stated by this definition: ”An enterprise corresponds to a legal unit or combination of legal units.”
If the activity of the enterprise is more than one, the main activity is the activity where the gross sales revenue is created the most. If the gross sales revenue of more than one activity of the enterprise is equal, then the main activity of the employee is the main activity.
The term ‘innovation’ can signify both an activity and the outcome of the activity. The general definition of an innovation is a new or improved product or process (or combination thereof) that differs significantly from the unit’s previous products or processes and that has been made available to potential users (product) or brought into use by the unit (process).
These include all scientific, technological, organisational, financial and commercial activities, undertaken by a firm, which are intended to or result in an innovation.
Research and experimental development (R&D) activities
Engineering, design and other creative work activities
Marketing and brand equity activities
Intellectual property (IP) related activities
Employee training activities
Software development and database activities
Activities related to the acquisition or lease of tangible assets
Innovation management activities
Innovation is tried to be realized with one or more of these activities. Activities can result in three ways during the observation period as follows:
Completed innovation activities
Ongoing innovation activities
Abandoned innovation activities
Research and Development (R&D):
It comprises creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge.
Product innovations must provide significant improvements to one or more characteristics or performance specifications. This includes the addition of new functions and improvements to existing functions or user utility. Relevant functional characteristics include quality, technical specifications, reliability, durability, economic efficiency during use, affordability, convenience, usability, and user friendliness.
Product innovations do not need to improve all functions or performance specifications. An improvement to or addition of a new function can also be combined with a loss of other functions or a decline in some performance specifications.
New designs or design features are significant improvements when they affect influence usability or utility of the product, for example if the appearance or 'look' of a product and enhances the user’s utility and creates a positive emotional response.
A product innovation must be made available to potential users, but this does not require the innovation to generate sales.
Product innovations can use new knowledge or technologies, or be based on new uses or combinations of existing knowledge or technologies.
Business process innovation:
It is a new or improved business process for one or more business functions that differs significantly from the firm’s previous business processes and which has been implemented within the firm. They are summarised as follows:
Methods for producing goods or providing services (including methods for developing goods or services)
Logistics, delivery or distribution methods
Methods for information processing or communication
Methods for accounting or other administrative operations
Business practices for organising procedures or external relations
Methods of organising work responsibility, decision making or human resource management
Marketing methods for promotion, packaging, pricing, product placement or after sales services
Scope of the Data
This research is applied to enterprises identified by sampling method from enterprises with 10 or more employees in industry and service sector. The questionnaire should be completed by a manager responsible for innovation activities at the headquarters of enterprises with more than one unit, covering the information of all affiliated units.
Geographical coverage regardless of their population size as with all provincial and district centres located in the Republic of Turkey's border villages have been covered. Sectoral coverage based on the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community, NACE Rev.2, consists of the following headings:
Mining and quarrying (NACE B: 05-09)
Manufacturing (NACE C: 10-33)
Electricity, gas steam and air conditioning supply (NACE D: 35)
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities (NACE E: 36-39) (NACE E: 36-39)
Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles (NACE 46)
Transportation and storage (NACE H: 49-53)
Information and communication (NACE J: 58-63)
Financial and insurance activities (NACE K: 64-66)
Architectural and engineering activities; technical testing and analysis (NACE 71)
Scientific research and development (NACE 72)
Advertising and market research (NACE 73)
TurkStat Business registers system
Selection of sample unit:
Stratified random sampling is used by taking into account of the economic activities (in accordance with NACE Rev.2) and enterprise size according to the number of employees (10-49, 50-249 ve 250+).
Sample sizes and estimation methods:
Survey is designed to give estimates at the level of Turkey.
Weighting method is applied to obtain parameters from the data set resulting from sampling so as to represent the universe. These parameters include design weights, adjustments for non-response, external distribution checks and ultimate multiplying factor.
The summary of main changes in previous survey can be seen in the following explanations:
Innovation active enterprises: For CIS-2016, the concept includes product (goods or services) innovators, process innovators (3 types), enterprises with abandoned/suspended innovation activities and on-going innovation activities. For CIS-2018, directly completed, ongoing, abandoned innovation activities, in house and / or conract-out R&D activities are considered in the new approach. In addition, design activities are regarded as product innovation and "process innovation" changed to "business process innovation" by examined under seven types.
Innovative enterprises: For CIS-2016, the concept includes product (goods or services) innovators, process innovators (3 types), enterprises with abandoned/suspended innovation activities and on-going innovation activities, organisation and/or marketing innovative enterprises. For CIS-2018, Eurostat stated that it is conceptually identical, but there are some changes in the definition and / or content of product and process innovations.
Product innovative enterprises: For CIS-2016, a product innovation is the market introduction of a new or significantly improved good or service. For CIS-2018, Eurostat stated that it is conceptually identical. The only difference derives from design activities (under the marketing innovation before) are considered as product innovation.
Process innovative enterprises: For CIS-2016, a process innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved production process, distribution method, or supporting activity. For CIS-2018, Eurostat stated that it is conceptually identical. However, there are some major changes in marketing and organisation innovation activities, also all concepts are combined in "business process innovation" concept.
Organisation innovative enterprises: For CIS-2016, an organisational innovation is a new organisational method in enterprise’s business practices (including knowledge management), workplace organisation or external relations that has not been previously used. For CIS-2018, Eurostat stated that it is conceptually identical. However, there are some major changes in marketing and organisation innovation activities, also all concepts are combined in "business process innovation" concept.
Marketing innovative enterprises: For CIS-2016, a marketing innovation is the implementation of a new marketing concept or strategy that differs significantly from enterprise’s existing marketing methods and which has not been used before. For CIS-2018, Eurostat stated that it is conceptually identical. However, there are some major changes in tabulation. First and foremost it is located under a single question. Design activities are considered as product innovation and after sales services are added.
Characteristics of Basic Data Sources
Enterprises within the scope are determined by sampling method.
Type of data collected:
From CIS2014 onwards, innovation statistics have been conducted with the assistance of Harzemli Software on-line. Authorized personnel of enterprises have filled questionnaire with the help of user names and passwords appropriated.
Basis of country data:
The survey is carried out in accordance with the standard Oslo methodology and the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) implemented by EUROSTAT. With regards to its history, it can be observed that it has gone through the following processes:
CIS-Light in 1993 having limited questions
CIS-1999 for the observation period of 1995-1997
CIS-3 for the observation period of 1998-2000 on March 2002
CIS-4 in comply with the third version of Oslo Manual
CIS-2006 for the observation period of 2004-2006
CIS-2008 for the observation period of 2006-2008 including eco-innovation module
CIS-2010 including creativity and skills module
CIS-2012 including strategies, obstacles and procurement modules
CIS-2014 including eco-innovation module
CIS-2016 for the observation period of 2014-2016
CIS-2018 for the observation period of 2016-2018 (With the publication of the 4th edition of the Oslo Guidelines in 2018, there have been radical changes in the types of innovation and the application principles of questionnaires).
Web based questionnaire are used to data entry.
Data processing is completed by Regional Offices of TurkStat.
Timing of recording transactions:
The end of the field work
Revision is not foreseen regarding this press release. In case of any revision it will be shared with the public.
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