Research and development (R&D) activities performed by business enterprises sector, higher education sector and government sector. These activities, on the other hand, financed by business enterprises sector, government sector, private non-profit institutions and international institutions.
R&D expenditures and financial sources thus government-financed GERD have been measured by Turkish Statistical Institute with the Research and Development Activities Survey. On the other hand, GBAORD is a method based on central government budgets and report by funders.
There are some differences between government-financed GERD data obtained from survey and GBAORD data:
Government-financed GERD data are based on reports by R&D performers, whereas GBAORD is based on reports by funders.
The GERD-based series cover only R&D performed on national territory, whereas GBAORD also includes payments to foreign performers, including international organizations.
Government-financed GERD should include R&D financed by central, provincial and local government, whereas GBAORD excludes local government and provincial government.
Analytical Budget System: Analytical Budget System is a classification of budget expenditures that allows determining responsible of program, internationally comparison, measurement and detailed statistical analysis. It consists of s based on four categories: institutional, functional, financing, and economical classification.
Tax expenditure: These expenditures are privileges or exceptions and exemptions which are different from standard tax system and reduce the total state revenue. In other words, tax expenditures, to achieve specific economic and social objectives, the basic obligation prescribed by law, is not compatible with the system and the tax benefit resulting from the loss or suspension form of a statutory provision can be defined as public expenditure.
In this study, Nomenclature for the Analysis and Comparison of Scientific Programmes and Budgets (NABS) has been used. NABS classification of R&D activities is a classification used for the analysis of public finance. This classification is based on socio-economic objectives which are used for creating budgets and draft programs by central governments while analyzing. At the same time it is a functional classification which corresponds of institutions’ budget transcripts funded by the budget allocated institutions. NABS classification includes following socio-economic objectives:
Exploration and exploitation of the Earth: This chapter includes research and experimental development (R&D) related to:
- The exploration of the earth's crust and mantle, seas, oceans and atmosphere, and their exploitation;
- Climatic and meteorological research, polar exploration (under various headings, as appropriate) and hydrology.
This chapter also includes R&D related to:
- Mineral, oil and natural gas prospecting;
- Exploration and exploitation of the sea-bed;
- Earth's crust and mantle excluding sea-bed;
- Sea and oceans;
Environment: This chapter includes R&D related to:
- The control of pollution, aimed at the identification and analysis of the sources of pollution and their causes, and all pollutants, including their dispersal in the environment and the effects on man, species (fauna, flora, microorganisms) and biosphere;
- Development of monitoring facilities for the measurement of all kinds of pollution;
- The elimination and prevention of all forms of pollution in all types of environment.
- Protection of atmosphere and climate;
- Protection of ambient air;
- Solid waste;
- Protection of ambient water;
- Protection of soil and groundwater;
- Noise and vibration;
- Protection of species and habitats;
- Protection against natural hazards;
- Radioactive pollution.
Exploration and exploitation of space: This chapter includes all R&D related to civil space.
- Scientific exploration of space;
- Applied research programmes;
- Launch systems;
- Space Laboratories and space travel
Transport, telecommunication and other infrastructures: This chapter includes R&D related to:
- Infrastructure and land development, including the construction of buildings;
- The general planning of land-use;
- Protection against harmful effects in town and country planning.
- Transport systems;
- Telecommunication systems;
- General planning of Land-use;
- Construction and planning of building;
- Civil engineering;
- Water supply.
Energy: This chapter includes R&D related to:
- The production, storage, transportation, distribution and rational use of all forms of energy;
- Processes designed to increase the efficiency of energy production and distribution;
- The study of energy conservation.
- Energy efficiency;
- CO2 capture and storage;
- Renewable energy sources;
- Nuclear fission and fusion;
- Hydrogen and fuel cells;
- Other power and storage technologies.
Industrial production and technology: This chapter includes R&D related to:
- The improvement of industrial production and technology;
- Industrial products and their manufacturing processes.
- Increasing economic efficiency and competitiveness;
- All manufactures as defined in the NACE Rev. 2 (codes 10 to 33);
- Recycling waste (metal and non metal).
Health: This chapter includes R&D related to protecting, promoting and restoring human health - broadly interpreted to include health aspects of nutrition and food hygiene. It ranges from preventative medicine, including all aspects of medical and surgical treatment, both for individuals and groups, and the provision of hospital and home care, to social medicine and paediatric and geriatric research.
- Prevention, surveillance and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases;
- Monitoring the health situation;
- Health promotion;
- Occupational health;
- Public health legislation and regulations;
- Public health management;
- Specific public health services;
- Personal health care for vulnerable and high risk populations.
Agriculture: This chapter includes R&D related to:
- The promotion of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and foodstuff production;
- Chemical fertilizers, biocides, biological pest control and the mechanization of agriculture;
- The impact of agricultural forestry activities on the environment;
- The field of developing food productivity and technology.
- Agriculture, forestry, and fishery;
- Animal and dairy science;
- Veterinary science and other agricultural sciences.
Education: This chapter includes R&D related to:
- Education general including training, pedagogy, didactics;
- Education, special (to gifted persons, those with learning disabilities).
- Pre- and primary school;
- Secondary school;
- Post secondary non-tertiary education;
- Tertiary education;
- Subsidiary services to education.
Culture, recreation, religion and mass media: This chapter includes R&D related to:
- The social phenomena of cultural activities, religion and leisure activities so as to define their impact on life in society;
- Racial and cultural integration and on socio-cultural changes in these areas. The concept of "culture" covers the sociology of science, religion, art, sport and leisure and also comprises inter alia R&D on the media, the mastery of language and social integration, libraries, archives and external cultural policy.
- Recreational and sporting services;
- Cultural services;
- Broadcasting and publishing services;
- Religious and other community services;
Political and social systems, structures and processes: This chapter includes R&D related to:
- The political structure of society,
- Public administration issues and economic policy;
- Regional studies and multi-level governance;
- Social change, social processes and social conflicts;
- The development of social security and social assistance systems;
- The social aspects of the organization of work.
- Gender-related social studies including discrimination and familiar problems;
- The development of methods of combating poverty at local, national and international level;
- The protection of specific population categories on the social level (immigrants, delinquents, "drop outs" etc.), on the sociological level, i.e. with regard to their way of life (young people, adults, retired people, the handicapped etc.) and on the economic level (consumers, farmers, fishermen, miners, the unemployed etc.);
- Methods of providing social assistance when sudden changes (natural, technological or social) occur in society.
General advancement of knowledge: R&D financed from General University Funds (GUF):
R&D related to Natural Sciences - financed from GUF
R&D related to Engineering Sciences - financed from GUF
R&D related to Medical Sciences - financed from GUF
R&D related to Agricultural Sciences - financed from GUF
R&D related to Social Sciences - financed from GUF
R&D related to Humanities - financed from GUF
General advancement of knowledge: R&D financed from other sources than GUF:
R&D related to Natural Sciences - financed from other sources than GUF
R&D related to Engineering Sciences - financed from other sources than GUF
R&D related to Medical Sciences - financed from other sources than GUF
R&D related to Agricultural Sciences - financed from other sources than GUF
R&D related to Social Sciences - financed from other sources than GUF
R&D related to Humanities - financed from other sources than GUF
Defense: This chapter includes R&D related to:
- Military purposes,
- Basic, nuclear and space R&D financed by Ministries of Defence
Institutional coverage: In this study, only the central government institutions / organizations covered, local governments and State-Owned Enterprises are not included. Accordingly, Public administrations within the scope of general budget, Special Budget administrations (include universities and high technology institutes) and Regulatory and supervisory agencies are covered. Additionally, The Defence Industry Support Fund is also covered.Appropriations in R&D functions of the analytical budget classification are included. Concerning indirect R&D supports, tax incentives related to various laws are covered.
Analytical budget system: Appropriations in the following functions are covered as R&D:
In addition, appropriations and actual outlays on European Union 7th Framework Programme are also included.
Indirect supports: The following articles of Laws which includes R&D activities are covered as tax expenditures:
Main data source is the related year budget law. Undersecretariat for Defence Industries and the Ministry of Finance General Directorate of Revenue Policies data are also used. The results of Higher-Education Sector R&D Activities Survey conducted by TURKSAT in 2005 are used to determine R&D expenditures of the General University Funds transferred to the Higher-Education Sector.
Classification of appropriations allocated to R&D in comply with NABS Classification, compiled data by R&D Activities Survey from related institutions and distribution forecasts directly compiled from these institutions had been used.
Type of data collected: Budget data and data on indirect support are compiled by the Ministry of Finance General Directorate of Revenue Policies. Data on The Defence Industry Support Fund are compiled from Undersecretariat for Defence Industries.
System of Compilation: Data are collected twice in a year:The provisional data are based on initial budget appropriations in the Budget Law. This calculation made on the basis of the initial budget appropriations is called "Estimated Results".The final data are based on actual outlays. This calculation made on the end of year budget appropriations is called "Final Results".The reference period is related year.
Objective: This collection provides users with data regarding R&D expenditure and R&D personnel broken down by following institutional sectors: business enterprise, government and higher education sectors. All data are broken down by the above mentioned sectors of performance. The R&D expenditure is further broken down by source of funds, by fields of science, by type of costs, by type of activity, by type of R&D, by fields of science, by socio-economic objectives. R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE) and also in head count (HC), The data are further broken down by occupation, by qualification, by gender, by fields of science.
Classification: List of Socio-economic objectives, International Standard Classification of Occupations ,Field of Science and Technology, International Standard Classification of Education, Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE Rev.2), Statistical Regions (SR-1 Level)
Research and Experimental Development(R&D): Research and experimental development comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
Basic research: Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view.
Applied research: Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective.
Experimental development: Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.
Researcher: Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems and also in the management of the projects concerned.
Technicians and equivalent staff: Technicians and equivalent staff are persons whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in one or more fields of engineering, physical and life sciences or social sciences and humanities. They participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Equivalent staff performs the corresponding R&D tasks under the supervision of researchers in the social sciences and humanities.
Other supporting staff: Other supporting staff includes skilled and unskilled craftsmen, secretarial and clerical staff participating in R&D projects or directly associated with such projects.
Full Time Equivalent (FTE): One FTE may be thought of as one person-year. Thus, a person who normally spends 30% of his/her time on R&D and the rest on other activities (such as teaching, university administration and student counselling) should be considered as 0.3 FTE. Similarly, if a full-time R&D worker is employed at an R&D unit for only six months, this results in an FTE of 0.5. Since the normal working day (period) may differ from sector to sector and even from institution to institution, it is not meaningful to express FTE in person-hours.
Intramural expenditures: Intramural expenditures are all expenditures for R&D performed within a statistical unit or sector of the economy during a specific period, whatever the source of funds.
Current costs: Current costs are composed of labour costs and other current costs.
R&D personnel cost: These comprise annual wages and salaries and all associated costs or fringe benefits, such as bonus payments, holiday pay, contributions to pension funds and other social security payments, payroll taxes, etc.
Other current cost of R&D: These comprise non-capital purchases of materials, supplies and equipment to support R&D performed by the statistical unit in a given year.
Capital expenditure: Capital expenditures are the annual gross expenditures on fixed assets used in the R&D programmes of statistical units. They should be reported in full for the period when they took place and should not be registered as an element of depreciation. All depreciation provisions for building, plant and equipment, whether real or imputed, should be excluded from the measurement of intramural R&D expenditures. This approach is proposed for two reasons: If depreciation (an allowance to finance the replacement of existing assets) is included in current costs, the addition of capital expenditures would result in double counting. In the government sector, no provision is normally made for depreciation of fixed assets. Consequently, even within a country, comparisons between sectors cannot be made unless depreciation provisions are excluded, and aggregates for a national series cannot be compiled unless the sector totals are put on a comparable basis.
Instruments and equipments: This covers major instruments and equipment acquired for use in the performance of R&D.
Land and buildings: This comprises land acquired for R&D (e.g. testing grounds, sites for laboratories and pilot plants) and buildings constructed or purchased, including major improvements, modifications and repairs.
Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development R&D (GERD): It is total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in national territory in a given period.
Capitalised computer software: It consists of computer software that is used in the performance of R&D for more than one year. It includes long-term licences or the acquisition of separately identifiable computer software, in-cluding programme descriptions and supporting materials for both systems and applications software.
Financial corporations: It consist of all resident corporations that are principally engaged in providing financial services, including insurance and pension funding services, to other institutional units. Before 2016 survey, this category was being evaluated in the business enterprise sector.
Non-financial corporations: They are corporations whose principal activity is the production of market goods or non-financial services. Before 2016 survey, this category was being evaluated in the business enterprise sector.
General government: Government units are unique kinds of legal entities established by political processes that have legislative, judicial or executive authority over other institutional units within a given area. Viewed as institutional units, the principal functions of government are to assume responsibility for the provision of goods and services to the community or to individual households and to finance their provision out of taxation or other incomes, to redistribute income and wealth by means of transfers, and to engage in non-market production. Before 2016 survey, this category was being evaluated in the government enterprise sector.
Transactions coverage: The data are collected in basic units like national currencies for R&D expenditure and numbers of persons for full-time equivalent and head count for R&D personnel. Derived indicators are calculated based on data collected. The surveyed populations vary according to institutional sectors. In the financial and non-financial corporations, countries survey, by census, businesses that are known to perform R&D or to be potential R&D performers. In the other sectors, the general government sector (GOV) and the higher education sector (HES), mostly all units are surveyed.
Geographical coverage: Turkey
Unrecorded activity: Private non-profit institutions have been included since 2016 survey. Hence, there is no unrecorded activity at all.
The name changes in concepts based on the terminology of national accounts and forming the data scope are as follows:
Before 2016 From 2016 onwards
Business enterprise sector Financial and non-financial corporations
Government sector General government
Method of Sampling: Census
Frame: All government bodies and public and private universities are covered. For financial and non-financial corporations, following enterprises are covered as the survey frame:
-Enterprises funded by TÜBITAK (TEYDEP), Technology Development Foundation of Turkey, Small and Medium Industry Development Organization (KOSGEB)
-Top 500 enterprises in industry and services sector separately by turnover and value added
-Enterprises in Technology Development Zones and Technoparks,
-Enterprises benefiting from the insurance Premium support( article 3/3) stated on Law on Supporting Research and Development, no.5746
-Enterprises which are known as R&D performers from the annual Survey on Industry and Services Statistics (20+ census, <20 sample).
Sources: General government, financial and non-financial corporations, private universities and administrative registers for public universities.
For HES, budget data, data on own funds of universities and academic personnel database were used. To calculate R&D personnel expenditures and number of R&D personnel as FTE, results of the Time-Use Survey of academic personnel were also used. For the years 2003-2013, the results of 2005 survey were used. In 2014, Time-Use Survey was renewed and new FTE values were used for the year 2014.
Type of data collected: Survey for general government sector (by mail), Survey for financial and non-financial corporations (face to face) by Regional Offices, Survey for private universities (by mail), and Administrative registers for public universities.
Basis of country data: R&D survey has been carried out under related rules which place Turkish Statistical Low. R&D data are compiled in accordance to the guidelines laid down in the proposed standard practice for surveys of research and experimental development - Frascati Manual, OECD, 2002.
Processing system: The field operation of Financial and non-Financial Corporations R&D Survey is done by face to face method and web based questionnaire.
Processing site: Data entry is done by Regional Offices of TURKSTAT except R&D research for general government.
Timing of recording transactions: After the field work.