Domestic tourism comprises the activities of residents who travel to the places outside their usual environment within the country and who stay in these places.
The community which is comprised of one or more than one members living in the same dwelling either with blood relationship or not and meet their needs together such as housing, food etc. and participating the services and management of the household.
Any person travelling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than twelve months and whose main purpose of trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
Same day visitor:
Visitors spent less than 24 hours and not stay overnight in visited place.
Usual environment can be defined as the geographic boundaries in which a person spends his/her daily routine life. The usual environment of a person includes person's own home, the place where he/she study or works and the other places he/she frequently visits. In order to be considered as a visitor, the passenger must be away from the usual environment.
It is not easy to determine the usual environment. However, besides the life routine the usual environmental concept has two dimensions: frequency and regularity. Although rarely visited, the places in the life routine of the person is a part of usual environment. The places where the person visited regularly and frequency (each month in reference period, more than once each month) is a part of usual environment even if they were far away from where people live.
There is only one usual environment for one person. The concepts of usual environment and place of residence are not the same. People in the same household may have different usual environments due to different workplaces.
It is correspond to travel between leaving the place of residence and returning. The trip main purposes of trip are holidays, recreation, leisure and business etc. And is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within one or more than one the place visited.
Package travel is a written contract of the product of the travel agency including combination of travel services, arranged in advance, which includes at least two of the transport, accommodation, sight/seeing services or some other essential tourism service under one price.
Refers to amount paid for the acquisition of consumption goods and services, for on use or to give away, for and during tourism trips. Commercial and investment expenditure and the cash given to relatives are not included.
All variables and its items compatible with United Nation, World Tourism Organization (WTO) and Eurostat definitions.
Classification of Working Status ICSE-93 and Education Classification ISCED-97 are used.
International and regional guidelines:
There are no important differences between Turkey's methodology and United Nations World Tourism Organisation
Data are collected from members of household who are residing in Turkey.
Type of data collections:
Data are collected from members of households quarterly. The survey is being applied with face to face interviews by using computer.
Field application is done in households with Tablet PCs by interviewer. During the data entry, some control rules are run and error-free data entry is provided. Data are run by the SAS data analysis programs in regional offices and any missing or incorrect records are corrected by reaching the households again. Corrected data is controlled by controllers sent to control database via INTRANET.
Statistical analysis of data related with domestic tourism are done by using with Access and SAS software.
The data is available as total of Turkey for quarterly, NUTS level 1 for only annually.
Concepts and Definitions
Foreigners: Visitors who are resident in abroad, departing from Turkey and do not have Turkish passport. Citizen resident in abroad: Visitors who are carrying Turkish passport and departing from Turkey.Citizen resident in Turkey: Visitors who are carrying Turkish passport and arriving Turkey.Nationality: It is the country name in the passport which visitors carry when departing from Turkey.Visitor: Any person travelling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than twelve months and whose main purpose of trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. This definition includes "Tourist” and “Same-day visitors".
Tourist: Visitor who stays more than 24 hours in the country he/she visits.
Same-day visitor: Visitor who stays less than 24 hours in the country he/she visits.
Tourism Income: Tourism income is defined as the total expenditure made in Turkey by foreigners and citizen visitors resident in abroad (excluding real estate expenditures, repair-maintenance expenses for residences, durables etc.). Tourism income includes the expenditure on food and beverages, accommodation, health, transportation in Turkey, sports, education, culture, international transportation with Turkish firms, mobile phone roaming expenditures, marina service expenditures, souvenirs etc.
Tourism Expenditure: Tourism expenditures are defined as the total expenditure (food and beverages, accommodation, health, transportation, sports, education, culture, international transportation by foreign firms, mobile phone roaming expenditures, souvenirs etc.) made in abroad by a citizen visitors resident in Turkey (excluding real estate expenditures, repair-maintenance expenses for residences, durables etc.) Individual expenses: It is all expenditure in the place visited by visitor or on behalf of visitor during trip except package tour expenditures, commercial and investment expenditure and the cash given to relatives.
Individual Expenditure: The total consumption expenditure made by a visitor or on behalf of a visitor for and during his/her trip at the destination excluding commercial and investment type expenditure, donations.
Tour operator: It is the business which combines the services of accommodation, transportation and other types of touristic services and organising a day or overnight trips and offering to the public for a fee before demand occurs.
Package tour is a tourism product provided by a tour-operator which elaborates it and sells it directly or through travel agencies. Within a package tour, visitors receive a combination of products associated with a trip, which are made of more than one of the following tourism services: transportation, accommodation, food serving, sight/seeing, entertainment services, etc. and other goods and services.
Package tours could cover one or more locations in the place visited or more than one country.
Package tour expenses:
It is fee paid to packages tour sold directly or through travel agency and provided by the tour operator. It must be purchased at least two of transportation, accommodation, food serving, entertainment services and etc. related to trip as part of package tour.
Amount remained in Turkey from package tour: It is the amount in the package which is the accommodation, food and drinks, sightseeing, guidance and transfer in Turkey, tour operator’s services inside Turkey and local international transport.
Amount remained in abroad from package tour: It is the amount in the package which is the accommodation, food and drinks, sightseeing, guidance and transfer in abroad, tour operator’s services in abroad and foreign international transport.
Classifications: International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 88), Classification of Working Status ICSE-93 and Education Classification ISCED-97. International and Regional Directives: United Nations World Tourism: Methodology of tourism statistics in Turkey is comply with the methodology and standards of United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) and European Union Statistics Office (Eurostat). Geographical Classification of Eurostat was used in the classification and codes of country groups.
- Border Statistics: All arriving-departing citizens and foreigners at the border Gates.- Departing Visitors Survey: It has been applied quarterly since 2001. Departing foreign and citizen visitors who are above the 14 and resident in abroad, same-day or overnight were covered.- Arriving Citizens Survey: It has been applied quarterly since 2003. Arriving citizen visitors who are above the 14 and resident in Turkey, same-day or overnight were covered.Since tourism methodology has been updated in recent years by Eurostat and WTO, there was a need to review tourism statistics and estimations of tourism revenues and tourism expenditures. As a result, some updates have been made in the tourism statistics published by our institution. In this context, following expenditures which were not covered between 2001-2011 have been included since 2012:
- Tour operators to update package tour ratios,
- GSM companies to include GSM roaming expenditures,
- Marina businesses to include marina’s service charges,
- To determine international transport expenditures, 2 more questions were added to Departing Visitors and Arriving Citizens Questionnaires.
Geographical coverage: All border gates
Converting exchange rate: Tourism revenue and expenditure were estimated in US dollars. The three month cross exchange rates of Central Bank have been used to convert foreign currencies into dollars.
Data sources: Number of arrivals and departures of foreigners and citizens which are registered by passport police directly in the border gates, marina businesses and GSM companies.
Data for Departing Foreign Visitors: It is being collected quarterly by Departing Visitors Survey, using questionnaire prepared in 26 languages, face to face interview at the border gates which are intensive in departures.
Data for Departing Citizen Visitors: It is being collected quarterly by Departing Visitors Survey, using questionnaire, face to face interview at the border gates which are intensive in departures.
Data for Arriving Citizens: It is being collected quarterly by Arriving Citizens Survey, using questionnaire, face to face interview at the border gates which are intensive in arrivals.
The cost of marina’s services for visitors is being collected quarterly from the marina businesses by mailing questionnaire.
GSM roaming revenues and expenditures are being collected quarterly from the GSM Companies.
Data Collection System: Web based data entrance program is being used. Data entrance is being made in Regional Offices.
- Border Statistics: All arrivals and departures in all border gates in the details of citizens, foreigners, nationality, month and border gates are covered.
- Departing Visitors: Survey is being applied at 25 Border Gates which covers the 90% of all Departing Visitors